is the fifth pillar of islam. It was made obligatory in the ninth year
after the Hijrah.
is a duty mankind owes to Allah, those who can afford the journey"
pilgrimage is an obligation from Allah upon his servant,to be performed
at least once in one's lifetime.
prophet peace be upon him said.
pilgrimage (need only to be done) once. Whoever does more, it is done
meaning of Hajj is to go to makkah to perform specific acts at a
specific time of the year.
Umrah, linguistically means "a visit." Legally it refers to
specific actions performed at specific place. It is obligatory at least
once in ones lifetime.
wisdom behind the Enjoining of Hajj and Umrah
prophet (peace be upon him) Said;
makes the pilgrimage to this house and does not have
intercourse nor does evil shall return (with respect to his sins) like
the day on which his mother gave him birth."
Conditions Of Hajj
order for hajj to become obligatory,one must meet the following
Being an adult
Being able to make the journey, this include the presence of the
provision and other righteous travelers to accompany him.
In the case of women,another condition is added and that is, the
existence of an adult male relative within the prohibited degree of
marriage (who can accompany her on the journey); if she makes
pilgrimage without such an escort,she would have commited a sin
although her pilgrimage would have been valid.
child performs pilgrimage, it will be considered a valid voluntary
pilgrimage but he must still perform the obligatory pilgrimage of islam
after he become of age.
person who should perform the pilgrimage dies without doing
so,wealth is taken from what he left behind so that someone may perforn
the pilgrimage on his behalf.
is not acceptable for a person to perform pilgrimage on
another's behalf when he himself has not done so on his own behalf.It
for a capable person to apoint someone to perform a voluntary
pilgrimage or umrah on his behalf.
Different ways in which the pilgrimage can be performed
following are the different combinations of performing the hajj or
Performing the umrah by itself
Performing the hajj by it self
Performing the hajj in connection with the umrah.
Performing the umrah in combination with the hajj but with a break in
for the umrah by it self,it may be performed throughout the
days of the year.However it is best performed with the hajj or during
the month of ramadhan.
for the hajj by itself, this is where the pilgrim intend to
perform only the hajj without performing the umrah beforehand or in
connection with it.
for the hajj in connection with the umrah, the acts of the two
are combined and it is sufficient to perform one circumanbulation and
sa'ee (referring to the going back and forth between the mounth of safa
for the umrah in combination with the hajj but with a break
between,this is the best way to perform hajj.It is when the person
enters the inviolable state for umrah during the month desinated for
hajj. He makes the sa'ee,circumambulation and then comes out of the
inviolable state.Then on the eight day of the month of Dhul-l-Hijjah,he
enters the inviolable state for the hajj during that same year.
performs all of the acts of the hajj. including the
circumambulation,Sa'ee,staying at Arafah and and so forth.He sacrifies
the animal which is obligatory when a person perform this type of hajj
or the previous type (the hajj in connection with the umrah).
Essentail components of Hajj and Umrah
are four essentail components of Hajj they include: enterig the
inviolable state, circumambulation, sa'ee and staying at Arafah.If any
one of these acts are not performed, the hajj is not valid.
has three essentail components these are: entering the
inviolable state, circumambulation and sa'ee. The umrah is not complete
except with these acts.
details of these essentail components are as follows:
first Essential Component
first essential component of the hajj or umrah is entering the
inviolable state.This is the intention to perform one of the types of
pilgrimage rite, Hajj or Umrah, after preparing to enter into that
state and removing any sewn clothing.
Obligatory Aspect of the inviolable state
Obligatory Aspect of the inviolable state are three:
Entering into the state at the proper place: This is the place that
is designated by the law giver to enter into the inviolable state (this
place varies depending on the direction you are coming from),it is not
allowed to go beyond that point without being in that state for whoever
wants to perform hajj or umrah.
Removing all sewn clothing: Men are not allowed to wear gowns,
shirts,head caps or scarves and, in fact, the head should not be
covered at all.Similarly they shuold not wear leather socks unless they
cannot find sandals.Women are not to wear face veils or gloves.
The talbiyyah: This is the saying of;
labaik labaika laa shareeka laka labaik.
innah-l-hamda wa-ni'mata laka wa-l-mulk.Laa shareeka lak (O Allah, here
i am at your service.You have no partner. Here i am at your
service.Verily,all the praise and the grace belong to you,and the
Dominion[as well]. You have no partner)."
pilgrim states these words when he enters into the inviolable state
at appointed location before going beyond that point.It is recommende
to repeat these words over and over, and for them to say them aloud.one
should start saying these words again at every moment of
descending,riding,before the begining of the prayer, after the prayer
is finished and so forth.
the umrah one discontinues saying these words upon the throwing of the
pebbles at al-Uqbah.
second essential component: The Circumambulation
This refers to going
around the House of Allah seven times.
are seven conditions to this act, they includes:
Having the intention at the time of beginning the act.
Being free of any impurities or conditions that nullify a person's
state of purity.
Covering the private parts since the circumambulation is like prayer
Circumambulating within the confines of the grand mosque itself, even
if one is far from the house.
Having the house of Allah on one's left side while circumambulating.
Circumambulating the house seven times.
Making each circuit after each other,without any unnecessary breaks.
Aspects for the circumambulation:
Al-raml, this act is recomended for capable men, but not for
women.It refers to the act of jogging during the circuit but with close
steps.It is only recommended in the first set of circumambulations
when one arrives at the kaaba,Known as tawaaf
recorded in Muslim on
the autority of Umar that the
prophet made raml from the black stone on the first three circuits and then walked the last Four.
Baring the right shoulder,((As recorded by imam Ahmed that the
prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions made the Umrah from
al-jaraanah and uncover their right shoulders, putting their garments
under their right armpit and throwing them over
the left shoulder.)). This is also only for the first circumambulation
upon arriving at makkah: and it is also only for men and not for
women.It is done during all seven circuit.
Kissing the black stone upon beginning the circumambulation and in
every circuit thereafter, if possible.It is also recommended to touch
the Yemeni corner of the Kaabah.
When beginning the first circuit, one should say,"In the name of
Allah and Allah is greatest. O Allah, [I perform this act] with belief
in you and attesting to your book and fulfilling Your pact and
following the sunnah of Your prophet"
Making supplication throughout the circumambulation. No specific
supplication is required; one may say whatever supplication one is led
by Allah to say.However,it is recommended that when ending a circuit to
our Lord, give us in this world good and in the Hereafter good and save
us from the punishmeent of the fire"
Making supplication at al-Multazim after finishing the
circumambulation. Al-Multazim is the place between the door to the
kaabah and the Black Stone.
After finishingt the circuits, one should pray two rakats behind
the "station of Abraham," reciting soorahs al-Kafiroon and al-Ikhlass
Drink some water from the well of zamzam and one should infact drink
one's fill of it after finishing the two rakats.
One should return to the Black Stone and touch it before moving on to
the sa'ee .
Third Essential compnent: The Sa'ee
The sa'ee is the
walking back and forth between the mounts of al-saffa
and al-Marwa with the intention of worship.It is an essentail component
of both the hajj and the umrah.
conditons of the sa'ee are;
The intention,for the prophet (peace be upon him) said;
all actions are but driven by intentions."(Recorded by al-Bukhari).
It must be in the correct chronological order with respect to the
circumambulation; that is, the circumambulation must be done first
followed by the sa;ee.
Each of its circuit must be done right after the other; however,a
small break does not cause any harm,especially if there is some
need for it.
One must complete seven trips [four going and three returning, not
a total of seven going and coming]. If one trip or part of one trip is
missing, it will not be sufficient.Its correctness depends on all of
the trips being completed.
It must be performed after a correct and valid circumambulation,
regardless of whether that circumambulation be of an obligatory or
Recommended Acts of the Sa'ee:
Jogging between the the two green makers; This marks the place
between which Haajr,the mother of ismaeel,paced back and forth. This is
recommended for men who have the ability to do so and not for those who
are weak or for women.
One should stop at or on top of al-safa and al-Marwal to supplicate.
One should make suppications during each of the trips between al-safa
One should say. "Allahu akbar (Allah is greatest)" three times upon
ascending both al-safa and al-Marwa each time one reaches them; one
should also say:
is none worthy of worship except Allah, the One, for whom there
is no partner. To Him belong the dominion and to Him is the praise.And
He has power over all things.He fulfilled His promise. supported His
servant and vanquished the parties by Himself."
The sa'ee should be performed immediately after the
circumambulation such that there is no break between them without a
valid reason .
Fourth Essential Component; Stopping at Arafah
fourth essentail act is stopping at Arafah. What this
actually means is being present at the place Known as Arafah, for a
small portion of time or more, With the intention of stopping there
between the time of noon untill dawn on the tenth day of Dhul-l-Hijjah.
If a person misses this stopping at Arafah,he has missed the entire
hajj and should then simply perform umrah and make up that hajj
at a later time.He must also make sacrifice,even if he had not made
that a part of his rites prior.If an enemy is preventing one from
reaching the house of Allah, he should make a sacrifice and then leave
the inviolable state.If he is prevented due to an illness or running
out of expenditures and he laid down then the condition,"I become free
of the inviolable state and wherever I am confined," he leaves the
inviolable state and there is no other act he must perform.
if he did not make that condition, he must make a sacrifice that is
easy upon him.
obligatory Acts of Hajj
Entering the inviolable state before preceding beyond the required
Staying at Arafah until the sunset for the one who is there during the
Spending the night- at least untill after midnight-before the day of
sacrifice at Muzdalifah.
Residing in Mina during the days of Tashreeq.
Throwing the pebbles in their proper order.
Shaving or cutting one's hair.
Performing the farewell circumambulation.
Obligatory Acts of Umrah
Entering the inviolable state-for those who live in Makkah it is
from wherever they are and for those from outside it is at the
Shaving or cutting the hair.
person fails to perorm one of the essential acts, his rites are not
complete unless he performs it.
person fails to perform an obligatory act, this must be compesated for
by sacrificing an animal.
person fails to perform a recommended act, there is nothing he must
Forbidden for one in the inviolable state
Forbidden Act are deeds that if the person making hajj or umrah
does any of the, it is obligatory upon him to make a sacrifies, fast or
are as follows;
Cutting one's hair on any part of the body.
Trimming the finger or toe nails.
Covering the head (for men) and covering the face for women, unless men
who are not related to them should be passing by.
Wearing sewn clothing by men, such as a long shirt or pants.
Killing land game that is normally permissible to eat.
Having sexual intercourse;
Having contact with women in a manner less than intercourse
From the book Fiqh