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بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ

Hajj And Umrah


This is the fifth pillar of islam. It was made obligatory in the ninth year after the Hijrah.
Allah says;
"Pilgrimage is a duty mankind owes to Allah, those who can afford the journey"
(ali-Imraan 97)
The pilgrimage is an obligation from Allah upon his servant,to be performed at least once in one's lifetime.
The prophet peace be upon him said.
"The pilgrimage (need only to be done) once. Whoever does more, it is done voluntarily."

 The meaning of Hajj is to go to makkah to perform specific acts at a specific time of the year.

The Umrah, linguistically means "a visit." Legally it refers to specific actions performed at specific place. It is obligatory at least once in ones lifetime.

The wisdom behind the Enjoining of Hajj and Umrah
The prophet (peace be upon him) Said;
"Whoever makes the pilgrimage to this house and does not have intercourse nor does evil shall return (with respect to his sins) like the day on which his mother gave him birth."
(Recorded by al-Bukhari)

The Conditions Of Hajj
In order for hajj to become obligatory,one must meet the following conditions:
(1) Being Muslim
(2) Being sane
(3) Being an adult
(4) Being able to make the journey, this include the presence of the provision and other righteous travelers to accompany him.
(5) Complete freedom
(6) In the case of women,another condition is added and that is, the existence of an adult male relative within the prohibited degree of marriage (who can accompany her on the journey); if she makes pilgrimage without such an escort,she would have commited a sin although her pilgrimage would have been valid.

If a child performs pilgrimage, it will be considered a valid voluntary pilgrimage but he must still perform the obligatory pilgrimage of islam after he become of age.
If a person who should perform the pilgrimage dies without doing so,wealth is taken from what he left behind so that someone may perforn the pilgrimage on his behalf.
 It is not acceptable for a person to perform pilgrimage on another's behalf when he himself has not done so on his own behalf.It is proper for a capable person to apoint someone to perform a voluntary pilgrimage or umrah on his behalf.

The Different ways in which the pilgrimage can be performed
(The following are the different combinations of performing the hajj or umrah):
(1) Performing the umrah by itself
(2) Performing the hajj by it self
(3) Performing the hajj in connection with the umrah.
(4) Performing the umrah in combination with the hajj but with a break in between.

 As for the umrah by it self,it may be performed throughout the days of the year.However it is best performed with the hajj or during the month of ramadhan.

 As for the hajj by itself, this is where the pilgrim intend to perform only the hajj without performing the umrah beforehand or in connection with it.

 As for the hajj in connection with the umrah, the acts of the two are combined and it is sufficient to perform one circumanbulation and sa'ee (referring to the going back and forth between the mounth of safa and Marwah).

As for the umrah in combination with the hajj but with a break between,this is the best way to perform hajj.It is when the person enters the inviolable state for umrah during the month desinated for hajj. He makes the sa'ee,circumambulation and then comes out of the inviolable state.Then on the eight day of the month of Dhul-l-Hijjah,he enters the inviolable state for the hajj during that same year.
He performs all of the acts of  the hajj. including the circumambulation,Sa'ee,staying at Arafah and and so forth.He sacrifies the animal which is obligatory when a person perform this type of hajj or the previous type (the hajj in connection with the umrah).

The Essentail components of Hajj and Umrah
There are four essentail components of Hajj they include: enterig the inviolable state, circumambulation, sa'ee and staying at Arafah.If any one of these acts are not performed, the hajj is not valid.
 Umrah has three essentail components these are: entering the inviolable state, circumambulation and sa'ee. The umrah is not complete except with these acts.
The details of these essentail components are as follows:

The first Essential Component
the first essential component of the hajj or umrah is entering the inviolable state.This is the intention to perform one of the types of pilgrimage rite, Hajj or Umrah, after preparing to enter into that state and removing any sewn clothing.
The Obligatory Aspect of the inviolable state
The Obligatory Aspect of the inviolable state are three:
(1) Entering into the state at the proper place: This is the place that is designated by the law giver to enter into the inviolable state (this place varies depending on the direction you are coming from),it is not allowed to go beyond that point without being in that state for whoever wants to perform hajj or umrah.
(2) Removing all sewn clothing: Men are not allowed to wear gowns, shirts,head caps or scarves and, in fact, the head should not be covered at all.Similarly they shuold not wear leather socks unless they cannot find sandals.Women are not to wear face veils or gloves.
(3) The talbiyyah: This is the saying of;
"Labaika-llahumma labaik labaika laa shareeka laka labaik. innah-l-hamda wa-ni'mata laka wa-l-mulk.Laa shareeka lak (O Allah, here i am at your service.You have no partner. Here i am at your service.Verily,all the praise and the grace belong to you,and the Dominion[as well]. You have no partner)."

The pilgrim states these words when he enters into the inviolable state at appointed location before going beyond that point.It is recommende to repeat these words over and over, and for them to say them aloud.one should start saying these words again at every moment of descending,riding,before the begining of the prayer, after the prayer is finished and so forth.
During the umrah one discontinues saying these words upon the throwing of the pebbles at al-Uqbah.

The second essential component: The Circumambulation
This refers to going around the House of Allah seven times.
There are seven conditions to this act, they includes:
(1) Having the intention at the time of beginning the act.
(2) Being free of any impurities or conditions that nullify a person's state of purity.
(3) Covering the private parts since the circumambulation is like prayer
(4) Circumambulating within the confines of the grand mosque itself, even if one is far from the house.
(5) Having the house of Allah on one's left side while circumambulating.
(6) Circumambulating the house seven times.
(7) Making each circuit after each other,without any unnecessary breaks.

Recommended Aspects for the circumambulation:

(1) Al-raml, this act is recomended for capable men, but not for women.It refers to the act of jogging during the circuit but with close steps.It is only recommended in the first set of circumambulations when one arrives at the kaaba,Known as tawaaf al-qudoom.
As recorded in Muslim on the autority of Umar that the prophet made raml from the black stone on the first three
circuits and then walked the last Four.

(2) Baring the right shoulder,((As recorded by imam Ahmed that the prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions made the Umrah from al-jaraanah and uncover their right shoulders, putting their garments under their right armpit and throwing them over the left shoulder.)). This is also only for the first circumambulation upon arriving at makkah: and it is also only for men and not for women.It is done during all seven circuit.

(3) Kissing the black stone upon beginning the circumambulation and in every circuit thereafter, if possible.It is also recommended to touch the Yemeni corner of the Kaabah.

(4) When beginning the first circuit, one should say,"In the name of Allah and Allah is greatest. O Allah, [I perform this act] with belief in you and attesting to your book and fulfilling Your pact and following the sunnah of Your prophet"

(5) Making supplication throughout the circumambulation. No specific supplication is required; one may say whatever supplication one is led by Allah to say.However,it is recommended that when ending a circuit to say;
"O our Lord, give us in this world good and in the Hereafter good and save us  from the punishmeent of the fire"
(6) Making supplication at al-Multazim after finishing the circumambulation. Al-Multazim is the place between the door to the kaabah and the Black Stone.

(7) After finishingt the circuits, one should pray two rakats behind the "station of Abraham," reciting soorahs al-Kafiroon and al-Ikhlass after al-Faatihah.

(8) Drink some water from the well of zamzam and one should infact drink one's fill of it after finishing the two rakats.

(9) One should return to the Black Stone and touch it before moving on to the sa'ee

The Third Essential compnent: The Sa'ee
The sa'ee is the walking back and forth between the mounts of al-saffa and al-Marwa with the intention of worship.It is an essentail component of both the hajj and the umrah.
The conditons of the sa'ee are;
(1) The intention,for the prophet (peace be upon him) said;
"Sure, all actions are but driven by intentions."(Recorded by al-Bukhari).
(2) It must be in the correct chronological order with respect to the circumambulation; that is, the circumambulation must be done first followed by the sa;ee.
(3) Each of its circuit must be done right after the other; however,a small break does not cause any harm,especially if there is some need for it.
(4) One must complete seven trips [four going and three returning, not a total of seven going and coming]. If one trip or part of one trip is missing, it will not be sufficient.Its correctness depends on all of the trips being completed.
(5) It must be performed after a correct and valid circumambulation, regardless of whether that circumambulation be of an obligatory or recommended nature.

The Recommended Acts of the Sa'ee:
(1) Jogging between the the two green makers; This marks the place between which Haajr,the mother of ismaeel,paced back and forth. This is recommended for men who have the ability to do so and not for those who are weak or for women.

(2) One should stop at or on top of al-safa and al-Marwal to supplicate.

(3) One should make suppications during each of the trips between al-safa and al-Marwah.

(4) One should say. "Allahu akbar (Allah is greatest)" three times upon ascending both al-safa and al-Marwa each time one reaches them; one should also say:
"There is none worthy of worship except Allah, the One, for whom there is no partner. To Him belong the dominion and to Him is the praise.And He has power over all things.He fulfilled His promise. supported His servant and vanquished the parties by Himself."

(5) The sa'ee should be performed immediately after the circumambulation such that there is no break between them without a valid reason

The Fourth Essential Component; Stopping at Arafah
 The fourth essentail act is stopping at Arafah. What this actually means is being present at the place Known as Arafah, for a small portion of time or more, With the intention of stopping there between the time of noon untill dawn on the tenth day of Dhul-l-Hijjah. If a person misses this stopping at Arafah,he has missed the entire hajj and should  then simply perform umrah and make up that hajj at a later time.He must also make sacrifice,even if he had not made that a part of his rites prior.If an enemy is preventing one from reaching the house of Allah, he should make a sacrifice and then leave the inviolable state.If he is prevented due to an illness or running out of expenditures and he laid down then the condition,"I become free of the inviolable state and wherever I am confined," he leaves the inviolable state and there is no other act he must perform.
However, if he did not make that condition, he must make a sacrifice that is easy upon him.

The obligatory Acts of Hajj
They are seven;
(1) Entering the inviolable state before preceding beyond the required locations
(2) Staying at Arafah until the sunset for the one who is there during the daytime.
(3) Spending the night- at least untill after midnight-before the day of sacrifice at Muzdalifah.
(4) Residing in Mina during the days of Tashreeq.
(5) Throwing the pebbles in their proper order.
(6) Shaving or cutting one's hair.
(7) Performing the farewell circumambulation.

The Obligatory Acts of Umrah
They are two;
(1) Entering the inviolable state-for those who live in Makkah it is from wherever they are and for those from outside it is at the appointed locations.
(2) Shaving or cutting the hair.

Important Notes

If a person fails to perorm one of the essential acts, his rites are not complete unless he performs it.
If a person fails to perform an obligatory act, this must be compesated for by sacrificing an animal.
If a person fails to perform a recommended act, there is nothing he must then do.

Act Forbidden for one in the inviolable state
The Forbidden Act are deeds that if the person making hajj or umrah does any of the, it is obligatory upon him to make a sacrifies, fast or feed others.
They are as follows;
(1) Cutting one's hair on any part of the body.
(2) Trimming the finger or toe nails.
(3) Covering the head (for men) and covering the face for women, unless men who are not related to them should be passing by.
(4) Wearing sewn clothing by men, such as a long shirt or pants.
(5) Using perfume
(6) Killing land game that is normally permissible to eat.
(7) Getting maried
(8) Having sexual intercourse;
(9) Having contact with women in a manner less than intercourse

From the book Fiqh made easy

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